The Toyota Celica is an automobile which was produced by the Japanese company Toyota from 1970 to 2006. The Celica name was ultimately derived from the Latin word coelica meaning "heavenly" or "celestial". In Japan, the Celica was exclusive to Toyota Japanese dealerships Toyota Corolla Store.
Throughout its life span the Celica has been powered by various four-cylinder engines. The most significant change occurred in August 1985, when the car's drive layout was changed from rear wheel drive to front wheel drive. During the first three generations, American market Celicas were powered by various versions of Toyota's R series engines. The four-wheel drive turbocharged model called GT-Four worldwide (All-Trac Turbo in the US) was produced from 1986 to 1999. Variable Valve Timing came in certain Japanese models starting in December 1997, and became standard in all models from 2000 on. Through seven generations, the model has gone through many revisions and design forks, including the Toyota Celica Supra (later known as the Toyota Supra). The Celica was available as notchback and liftback coupes, as well as a convertible.
Fourth generation / T160 Series (1985–1989)
In August 1985 the Celica was changed completely. It was an all-new vehicle with front wheel drive, a rounded, flowing body and new 2.0 L four-cylinder engines. The Celica was no longer built on the Toyota A platform, and instead realigned with the Toyota T platform underpinning the Toyota Corona. The Toyota A platform was now exclusive to the Toyota Supra. The coupe bodystyle in Japan was used only for the Corona Coupe, sold only at Japanese Toyota dealerships Toyopet Store without the retractable headlights. An optional feature only offered on the Corona Coupe was four-wheel steering, not shared with the Celica during this generation, however, the turbocharged engine on the Celica was not installed in the Corona Coupe.
Toyota introduced the "ultimate Celica", the GT-Four (ST165) onto the Japanese market in October 1986. With full-time all-wheel drive, including an electronically controlled central locking differential, and a turbocharged version of the GT-S 2.0 L engine producing 190 hp (142 kW) (3S-GTE), it immediately took its place as the flagship of the Celica range, and became the official Toyota rally car for all years of production. The GT-Four, with a revised viscous coupling central locking differential, began export in 1987 (1988 US model year) and marketed in North America as the All-trac Turbo. It was rated at 190 bhp (142 kW; 193 PS) and 190 lb·ft (258 N·m). The All-trac system was also offered for a limited time on the Camry, and Corolla in North America without the turbo, as well as the normally aspirated and supercharged Previa.
The ST165 chassis design was quite acclaimed in its time.Toyota chose not to make any drastic suspension changes for the AWD GT-Four. The front suspension comprises MacPherson struts with an anti-swaybar and strut tower brace, while the rear employs struts with a trailing link and twin lateral links per side plus an anti-swaybar.
The ST165 GT-Four made its World Rally debut in the 1988 Tour de Corse and finished 6th. The first victory came in 1988 Cyprus (non-WRC), and the first WRC victory in 1989 Rally Australia.